Tuesday, May 10, 2011

Botany Review for the final exam

Here's some questions to make those brain cells churn out the ATP!

1. What occurs during glycolysis?

2. What are NAD+ and FAD used for?

3. What are the three steps in aerobic respiration, and where does each occur?

4. During which step of cellular respiration is the most ATP made?

5. During aerobic respiration, how many ATPs are made from one molecule of glucose in most cells?

6. What is the role of oxygen in aerobic respiration?

7. Describe how the ATP is made during chemiosmosis

8. What is produced by your muscle cells if there is not enough oxygen available at the end of glycolysis for aerobic respiration to continue?

9. What are the important end products of the Citric Acid Cycle, and what happens to each of these products?

Here are the photosynthesis questions for review:

1. Which colors of light are most strongly absorbed by chlorophyll?
2. How is oxygen released during photosynthesis?
3. Why is water needed in photosynthesis?
4. What are the products of the light dependent reactions?
5. What is made in the light independent reactions?
6. What is the role of RUBP in photosynthesis?
7. What kind of plants use PEP and what advantage does it give them?
8. How are CAM plants different from others in the way they do photosynthesis?
9. What kind of organisms can do photosynthesis?
10. Where inside the chloroplast do the light dependent reactions happen?

Plant Growth

1. Growth toward the light is called a positive ________
2. What are some common environmental cues to which plants respond?
3. Which hormome is involved in plants dropping leaves and ripening of fruit?
4. Which hormone can cause "foolish seedling disease"?
5. What function do the cytokinins play in plant development?
6. What is apical dominance and what hormone causes this?
7. Shoots grow up, and roots tend to grow down even in the dark. What kind of tropism is at work here?

1. Which of Mendel's laws addresses homologous chromosomes separating from each other during meiosis?

2. What word (or phrase) describes each of the following genotypes? TT Tt tt

3. What is the difference between genotype and phenotype?

4. In pea plants purple flower color (P) is dominant to white (p). If a plant heterozygous for purple flowers is crossed with a plant with white flowers, what proportion of the offspring will have white flowers?

5. In one species of flowering plants there is some diversity in flower color. Some plants have blue flowers, some have red, and others have purple flowers. What type of inheritance do you suspect controls this trait, and why?

6. Describe Mendel's law of independent assortment.

7. Allele pairs are found on ___________________ chromosomes.

8. In peas, tall plants (T) are dominant to short plants (t), and yellow seeds(Y) are dominant to green (y) seeds. Two plants heterozygous for both traits are crossed. What proportion should be tall plants with green seeds?

9. In one species of plant The flowers can be blue or red. When two blue flowering plants are crossed, the offspring are always blue. When a red and blue flowering plant are crossed, sometimes all red are produced, and other times both red and blue flowering plants are produced. When two red flowering plants are crossed, sometimes the offspring are all red, and other times both red flower and blue flowering plants are made. Which color is dominant?