Wednesday, April 16, 2014

Evolution Review

Evolution:
1. How do biologists define evolution?

2. What is a population?

3. What islands were important to Charles Darwin's thinking on evolution?

4. Biogeography is how living things are distributed around the world. How was Darwin surprised by the the biogeography he observed on his trip around the world?

5. While fossils support the theory of evolution, we can't rely on the fossil record ever being complete. Why?

6. How does the existence of fossils support the theory of evolution?

7. How did LaMarck explain inheritance?

8. What was the hypothesis of catastrophism?

9. While the theory of evolution does not indicate humans came from chimps, it does indicate a _________________________ between chimps and humans.

10. Upon what observations did Darwin base his theory of evolution by natural selection?

11. What is adaptive radiation, and give an example of adaptive radiation in plants.

12. How has evidence from molecular biology supported the theory of evolution?

13. What is sympatric speciation, and how is it different from allopatric speciation?

14. How can adaptive radiation happen?

15. What mechanisms of evolution are random?

16. Other than the fossil record, what evidence exists to support the theory of evolution?

Animal Diversity Review

 Animal Diversity

1. What are two unique tissues found in animals?

2. Cnidarians all have _______symmetry and have an _______ digestive system.
3. Coral animals enter into a partnership with algae. Why is this important to the coral?
4. Flat worms have _____ symmetry and have an _______ digestive system
5. Tapeworms, and flukes are _____ worms that have a _______ lifestyle

6. Which of the following can you get from eating rare pork.
A. Hookworm
B. Ascaris worm
C. Trichina worm
D. Whipworm

7. Which of the following can you get from walking barefoot on contaminated soil?
A. Hookworm
B. Ascaris worm
 C. Trichina worm
D. Whipworm

8. What kind of animal are you?
A. acoelomate
B. pseudocoelomate
C. coelomate
 
9. During early development of an animal the first opening that forms becomes its mouth. This animal is A. a protostome
B. a deuterostome
C. an endotherm
D. a bird

 10. Jellyfish have a body form called a _______ .
11. How are the three groups of worms we have discussed different?
12. What characteristics do all Mollusks share?
13. What features of the Arthropods contribute to this group being the most successful group of animals?
14. What do all Arthropods share in common?
15. How are the Echinoderms different from the other invertebrate animals?
16. What are the characteristics of your Phylum?
17. Why are tunicates in our Phylum?

 Chordate Questions

1. To which group of mammals do you belong, and how are you different from a monotreme?
 2. Birds are part of the reptile clade, yet they are highly modified for flight. What are 3 adaptations they have to facilitate flight?
3. What makes a bird a bird?
4. How are reptiles better adapted for land than the amphibians?
5. Why do amphibians need to keep their skin moist?
6. Bony fish have some characteristics that the cartilaginous fish lack. What are these features and how are they a benefit to the bony fish?
7. What is present in the fins of the lobed finned fish?
8. How is a marsupial different from a monotreme?
9. What marsupial is found in the US?
10 Which group of chordates have the chordate characteristics as larvae, but retain the pharyngeal slits as adults?

Wednesday, March 12, 2014

Photosynthesis and Cell Respiration Review

Chapter 4 Review:

1. Which colors of light are most strongly absorbed by chlorophyll?

2. Where does the oxygen released during photosynthesis come from?

3. Why is water needed in photosynthesis?

4. What are the products of the light dependent reactions?

5. What is made in the light independent reactions?

6. What is the role of RUBP in photosynthesis?

7. What kind of plants use PEP and what advantage does it give them?

8. How are CAM plants different from others in the way they do photosynthesis?

9. What kind of organisms can do photosynthesis?

10. Where inside the chloroplast do the light dependent reactions happen?


Here's some questions to make those brain cells churn out the ATP!



1. What are the differences between aerobic and anaerobic respiration, and which is more efficient?



2. What are NAD+ and FAD used for?



3. What are the three steps in aerobic respiration, and where does each occur?



4. During which step of cellular respiration is the most ATP made?



5. During aerobic respiration, how many ATPs are made from one molecule of glucose in most cells?



6. What is the role of oxygen in aerobic respiration?



7. Describe how the ATP is made during chemiosmosis



8. What is produced by your muscle cells if there is not enough oxygen available at the end of glycolysis for aerobic respiration to continue?



9. Yeasts do a kind of anaerobic respiration called ____________, and produce ___________ and _________ along with 2 ATP



10. What are the important end products of the Citric Acid Cycle, and what happens to each of these products?



Fungi and Plant Review Bio 120 Exam 2

1. Which of the following is found in gymnosperms, and which is found in angiosperms?

A. seeds
B. pollen
C. Vessel cells in xylem
D. tracheid cells in xylem

2. What is the function of the anther in the flower?

3. Which of the following is where one would find ovules?

A. in an anther
B. in the ovary
C. in the stigma
D. in the style

4. Ovules are

A. eggs
B. spores that will become pollen
C. spores that will become eggs
D. immature seeds
E. pollen grains

5. In double fertilization the first sperm fertilizes the egg and the second

A. dies
B. is only used if the first sperm cell dies
C. fertilizes another egg
D. fertilizes a haploid endosperm mother cell to make diploid endosperm
E. fertilizes a diploid ( n+n) endosperm mother cell to make triploid endosperm

6. What is the function of fruit?

7. Microspores become
A. the embryo sac
B. the mature male gametophyte
C. pollen grains
D. eggs E. only B and C above

8. What is the oldest plant on Earth, and what is the most massive
9. How are confiers adapted to life in cold dry climates?

10. What is missing in moss that is present in ferns?
A. swimming sperm
B. seeds
C. pollen
D. vascular tissue
E. ovules

11. Why are flowering plants so much more diverse than the gymnosperms?

12. What do ferns and mosses share in common?
A. seeds
B. swimming sperm
C. pollen
D. vascular tissue
E. dominant sporophyte generation

13. During a plant's life cycle the _______ generation is diploid and makes spores
A. sporophyte
B. gametophyte
C. sori
D. sporangia
E. photosynthetic

Fungi  Questions
1. A lichen is made of a ____ and a ____. What is the ecological role of lichens?
2. What role do fungi play typically in their habitat?
3. How are fungi different from plants?
4. How do fungi feed?
5. How do fungi spread out in their habitat?
6. The body of a fungus is a thread like structure called a ____
6. A mass of the answer in question 6 is call a ____


Sunday, March 2, 2014

5 billion passenger pigeons were hunted to extinction by humans in a few decades, now scientists are trying to bring them back.

Bio 120 students- are you looking for an article to read for your written assignment?
Try  this article from the New York Times about how scientists are using the power of genetic engineering to bring back extinct animals. Most newspaper articles are not acceptable for this assignment, but this is an exception.

Monday, February 24, 2014

Mitosis and Meiosis Review

Mitosis and Meiois Review

1. If a cell has 8 chromosomes and does mitosis, how many cells will be made, and how many chromosomes will each cell have?




2. If a cell has 8 chromosomes and does meiosis to make sperm cells, how many cells will be made, and how many chromosomes will each cell have?




3. Mitosis creates cells which are ________, while meiosis makes cells which are _____.




4. What are homologous chromosomes?




5. What are sister chromatids?




6. What is crossing over, and during which process, (mitosis or meiosis) does it occur?




7. Why is crossing over important?




8. During __________ of mitosis sister chromatids separate.




9. During _________ of meiosis homologous pairs of chromosomes separate, but during ____________ of meiosis sister chromatids separate.




10. In meiosis, typically four sperm cells are made, but meiosis only makes one large egg cell. Why?





DNA and Genetic Engineering Review

DNA and Genetic Engineering Review Questions

1. Describe the structure of the DNA molecule


2. If the sequence of bases on one stand of the molecule is AAC TGC CCG, what is the sequence on the complementary strand?


3. During DNA replication, what enzyme breaks the hydrogen bonds between the base pairs, and what enzyme matches up nucleotides to the existing ones on the parent strand of DNA?


4. Why is this type of replication called Semi Conservative?


5. How is RNA different from DNA?


6. The production of messenger RNA from DNA is called ________, and this happens in the __________ of the cell.


7. mRNA gets a cap and a tail prior to being read by the ribosome. What is the function of the cap and tail?


8. If the DNA strand being copied had this sequence: ACT GGC ATA CTA what would the sequence of the mRNA be?

9. The function of transfer RNA is ?


10. What is the name of the enzyme that produces RNA from DNA?


11. If the sequence of DNA is the same in your body cells, why are all cells not the same?



12. The DNA in you, an earthworm, and a fungus is the same. So why are you a human and not an earthworm?



13. What is an anti-codon and where is it found?



14. The protein synthesis process that occurs at the ribosome is called _____________



15. What is a stop codon, and what happens when one is read in the ribosome?





Genetic Engineering  




1. What are restriction enzymes?


2. What kind of cells have restriction enzymes, and what is the purpose of these enzymes in the cell?


3. What is a plasmid?


4. How are plasmids used in genetic engineering?


5. Why does human DNA work in a bacterial cell?


6. What is gene therapy?


7. How are small fragments of DNA separated during the DNA fingerprinting process?


8. What benefits are there to inserting a human gene into a bacterium? What possible problems could arise from genetically engineered organisms being released into the wild?









Wednesday, February 5, 2014

Spring 2014 review for first Bio 120 Exam

Biology 120 Here are some review questions for you. Some may be similar to the daily review questions, but all will help you while you prepare for the exam.

Chapters 1 and 2
1.How is a hypothesis different from a theory?
2.What are five characteristics of living things?
3. What is a hydrogen bond, and why are these bonds important to life?
4. Oxygen has 8 electrons, with 6 in the outermost energy level. Will this atom react?
5. How are ions formed?
6. A solution with a pH of 5 is how many times more acidic than a solution with a pH of 7?
7. What determines if an atom with react with another?
8. How are polar and non polar covalent bonds different?
9. How is the polar nature of water related to:
a. its high boiling point
b. surface tension
c. the solid form being less dense than the liquid form


Organic Molecules
1. What are the building blocks of carbohydrates?
2. What is the difference between a saturated and unsaturated fatty acid?
3. Why is the shape of an enzyme important to the function of the enzyme?
4. At what level of complexity do proteins usually become functional?
5. What makes up a nucleotide?
6. What bond forms between amino acids as they react to form proteins?
7. How is the function of carbohydrates different in plants and animals?
8. Which of the macromolecules we discussed stores energy in the most efficient way?
9. What is the most common steroid in the body?

Chapter 3
1. How are the mitochondria and chloroplasts similar?
2. Why do we think mitochondria and chloroplasts were once independent organisms?
3. Describe the plasma membrane. Include how a lipid membrane functions in a watery environment.
4. What role do the proteins in the plasma membrane play?
5. How are prokaryotic cells different from eukaryotics cells?
6.What can cyanobacteria do that the bacteria living in your mouth do not do?
7.How are archeae different from the bacteria living on your skin?
8.Describe briefly what organelles would be involved in making a protein and exporting it from the cell.
9.Give an example of two cell organelles working together to accomplish a task.
10.What organelle is found on the ER?
11.What is the function of lysosomes?
12.Where is the nucleolus, and what is its function?
13.What are the functions of the Golgi bodies?

Osmosis and Diffusion

1. A plant cell in a hypertonic solution will under go _____________
2. An animal cell in a hypotonic solution may undergo _____________
3. A cell must maintain an imbalance of sodium ions on either side of the membrane for it to function. What process would it most likely use of the ones we discussed in class?
4. How is active transport different from diffusion and osmosis?
5. How is dialysis different from osmosis?
6. What affect would a hypertonic solution have on a cell?
7. In a hypotonic solution water would move ________ a cell.
8. If a .9% salt solution is isotonic to a red blood cell, a 2% salt solution would be _____.

Microbes
1. How are viruses different from other microbes covered in class?
2. How do viruses get into cells?
3. Eukaryotic cells reproduce using mitosis, how do prokaryotic cells reproduce?
4. What are the three common shapes of bacteria, and why is shape important?
5. How are the protists different from bacteria?
6. What is a capsule in bacterial cells?
7. How are the Archaeans different from Bacteria?
8. How do Paramecium, Amoeba, and Euglena move and feed?