Tuesday, April 14, 2015

Bio 120 Exam 3 Review Photosynthesis, Cell Respiration, Evolution and Animals up to and including Arthropods

Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration (Chapter 4) Review:

1. Which colors of light are most strongly absorbed by chlorophyll?

2. Where does the oxygen released during photosynthesis come from?

3. Why is water needed in photosynthesis?

4. What are the products of the light dependent reactions?

5. What is made in the light independent reactions?

6. What is the role of RUBP in photosynthesis?

7. What kind of plants use PEP and what advantage does it give them?

8. How are CAM plants different from others in the way they do photosynthesis?

9. What kind of organisms can do photosynthesis?

10. Where inside the chloroplast do the light dependent reactions happen?

Here's some questions to make those brain cells churn out the ATP!



1. What are the differences between aerobic and anaerobic respiration, and which is more efficient?



2. What are NAD+ and FAD used for?



3. What are the three steps in aerobic respiration, and where does each occur?



4. During which step of cellular respiration is the most ATP made?



5. During aerobic respiration, how many ATPs are made from one molecule of glucose in most cells?



6. What is the role of oxygen in aerobic respiration?



7. Describe how the ATP is made during chemiosmosis



8. What is produced by your muscle cells if there is not enough oxygen available at the end of glycolysis for aerobic respiration to continue?



9. Yeasts do a kind of anaerobic respiration called ____________, and produce ___________ and _________ along with 2 ATP



10. What are the important end products of the Citric Acid Cycle, and what happens to each of these products?



Evolution:
1. How do biologists define evolution?

2. What is a population?

3. What islands were important to Charles Darwin's thinking on evolution?

4. Biogeography is how living things are distributed around the world. How was Darwin surprised by the biogeography he observed on his trip around the world?

5. While fossils support the theory of evolution, we can't rely on the fossil record ever being complete. Why?

6. How does the existence of fossils support the theory of evolution?

7. How did LaMarck explain inheritance?

8. Other than the fossil record, what evidence exists to support the theory of evolution?

9. While the theory of evolution does not indicate humans came from chimps, it does indicate a _________________________ between chimps and humans.

10. Upon what observations did Darwin base his theory of evolution by natural selection?

11. What is adaptive radiation, and give an example of adaptive radiation in plants.

12. How has evidence from molecular biology supported the theory of evolution?

13. What is sympatric speciation, and how is it different from allopatric speciation?

14. How can adaptive radiation happen?

15. What mechanisms of evolution are random?

16. What is the RNA World hypothesis?

17. Why is the Urey-Miller experiment important?

Animal Diversity Review

1. What two unique tissues do animals have?
2. Cnidarians all have _______symmetry and have an _______ digestive system.
3. Coral animals enter into a partnership with algae. Why is this important to the coral?
4. Flat worms have _____ symmetry and have an _______ digestive system
5. Tapeworms, and flukes are _____ worms that have a _______ lifestyle

6. Which of the following can you get from eating rare pork.
A. Hookworm
B. Ascaris worm
C. Trichina worm
D. Whipworm

7. Which of the following can you get from walking barefoot on contaminated soil?
A. Hookworm
B. Ascaris worm
 C. Trichina worm
D. Whipworm

8. What kind of animal are you?
A. acoelomate
B. pseudocoelomate
C. coelomate
 
9. During early development of an animal the first opening that forms becomes its mouth. This animal is
A. a protostome
B. a deuterostome
C. an endotherm
D. a bird

 10. Jellyfish have a body form called a _______ .
11. How are the three groups of worms we have discussed different?
12. What characteristics do all Mollusks share?
13. What features of the Arthropods contribute to this group being the most successful group of animals?
14. What do all Arthropods share in common?
15. How are the Echinoderms different from the other invertebrate animals?

Monday, April 6, 2015

Litter: From Street to the Ocean

Litter on the street makes it way to our ocean and wetlands. It is not treated along the way. It just pollutes. Don't throw trash on the street! Take a look at the LA Times article here

Thursday, April 2, 2015

Botany Review for Exam 3 Plant Physiology, Evolution, Prokaryotes, Fungi, Algae


 Plant Physiology

1. Which vascular tissue move water and which moves food in the plant body and how are these tissues different?
2. What forces are involved in the movement of water?
3. What is the role of the endodermis in the movement of water into the vascular cylinder?
4. What is the driving force of water movement into the leaves of a plant?
5. Food in plants moves from a ___________ to a ____________ .
6. Which process, water movement or translocation of food requires ATP?
7. What kind of cells in the phloem participates in the actual movement of the dissolved sugars?
8. Describe how dissolved sugar moves through the phloem.


Evolution:
1. How do biologists define evolution?
2. What is a population?
3. What islands were important to Charles Darwin's thinking on evolution?
4. What are vestigial structures?
5. While fossils support the theory of evolution, we can't rely on the fossil record ever being complete. Why?
6. How does the existence of fossils support the theory of evolution?
7. How did LaMarck explain inheritance?
8. What was the hypothesis of catastrophism?
9. While the theory of evolution does not indicate humans came from chimps, it does indicate a _________________________ between chimps and humans.
10. Upon what observations did Darwin base his theory of evolution by natural selection?
11. What is adaptive radiation, and give an example of adaptive radiation in plants.
12. How has evidence from molecular biology supported the theory of evolution?
13. What is sympatric speciation, and how is it different from allopatric speciation?

Bacteria
1. What is the name of the bacteria that do photosynthesis,and what can they do in addition to photosynthesis?
2. In what major way are bacterial cells different from plant cells?
3. Describe how bacterial cells can reproduce.
4. What is in the cell walls of bacteria?
5. What is a capsule used for?
6. What are the three basic shapes of bacteria?
7. What roles do bacteria play in the ecosystem where they are found?
8. How are Archea different from bacteria?
9. Some bacteria live in the roots of plants. What are they doing there?
10. What is a plasmid?

Fungi Questions
1. How are fungi classified?
2. What role do fungi play typically in their habitat?
3. How are fungi different from plants?
4. How do fungi feed?
5. What does heterokaryotic mean?
6. How do fungi spread out in their habitat?
7. The body of a fungus is a thread like structure called a ____
8. A mass of the answer in question 7 is call a ____
9. A lichen is made of a ____ and a ____. What is the ecological role of lichens?

Algae and other Protists

1. Why are algae different colors?
2. Which type of algae is most related to land plants?
3. How are diatoms different from other algae?
4. What are dinoflagelates and why are they important?
5. What are two economic use of algae?
6. What role do most algae play in their ecosystems?
7. How are the large brown algae we call kelp or seaweed adapted to life in the ocean?
8. Why is Euglena not considered a plant?
9.  How are cellular and plasmodial slime molds different?
10. What plant diseases can be caused by water molds?
11. Give an example of a colonial algae. What does it mean to be colonial?

Wednesday, March 25, 2015


I mentioned this animal in class when we were discussing photosynthesis.

This beautiful green leafy organism is actually a sea slug. The sea slug Elysia chlorotica consumes chloroplasts when it eats the algae Vaucheria litorea. The slug feeds on the algae, but the chloroplasts are retained in the cells of the gut. The gut in this sea slug is highly branched and the chloroplasts give it the green color. The chloroplasts in the tissue of the animal's gut continue to function in the animals without an algal cell being present. The slug lives about 10 months and can survive off the food made by the chloroplasts.

The green color also provides great camouflage. While the animal has to eat an algae to get the chloroplasts, it is intriguing that the chloroplasts can continue to function without any algal cells present as genes in the nucleus of the algae are needed for photosynthesis to occur. So where are the genes to support photosynthesis? In the nucleus of the sea slug cells! The slug gets the genes from the algae, it does not have them until the animal feeds on the algae.

Interested in looking into this gene transfer further? Click here to read a paper by Mary E. Rumpho et al. on horizontal gene transfer between the algae and the slug.

Photosynthesis from Space

When the chloroplasts in the leaves of plants absorb sunlight, some of the light is released from the leaves in a phenomenon called fluorescence. The light that is released is too dim for our eyes to see it, but it can be seen from satellites in space. Take a look. Click here to watch a short video of this fluorescence

Wednesday, March 4, 2015

Bio 120 review for Exam 2

DNA and Genetic Engineering Review Questions



1. Describe the structure of the DNA molecule




2. If the sequence of bases on one stand of the molecule is AAC TGC CCG, what is the sequence on the complementary strand?




3. During DNA replication, what enzyme breaks the hydrogen bonds between the base pairs, and what enzyme matches up nucleotides to the existing ones on the parent strand of DNA?





4. Why is this type of replication called Semi Conservative?






5. How is RNA different from DNA?






6. The production of messenger RNA from DNA is called ________, and this happens in the __________ of the cell.






7. mRNA gets a cap and a tail prior to being read by the ribosome. What is the function of the cap and tail?






8. If the DNA strand being copied had this sequence: ACT GGC ATA CTA what would the sequence of the mRNA be?



9. The function of transfer RNA is ?




10. What is the name of the enzyme that produces RNA from DNA?






11. If the sequence of DNA is the same in your body cells, why are all cells not the same?








12. The DNA in you, an earthworm, and a fungus is the same. So why are you a human and not an earthworm?








13. What is an anti-codon and where is it found?








14. The protein synthesis process that occurs at the ribosome is called _____________








15. What is a stop codon, and what happens when one is read in the ribosome?












Genetic Engineering  


1. What are restriction enzymes?






2. What kind of cells have restriction enzymes, and what is the purpose of these enzymes in the cell?






3. What is a plasmid?






4. How are plasmids used in genetic engineering?






5. Why does human DNA work in a bacterial cell?






6. What is gene therapy?






7. How are small fragments of DNA separated during the DNA fingerprinting process?






8. What benefits are there to inserting a human gene into a bacterium? What possible problems could arise from genetically engineered organisms being released into the wild?








Mitosis and Meiosis Review

1. If a cell has 8 chromosomes and does mitosis, how many cells will be made, and how many chromosomes will each cell have?





2. If a cell has 8 chromosomes and does meiosis to make sperm cells, how many cells will be made, and how many chromosomes will each cell have?





3. Mitosis creates cells which are ________, while meiosis makes cells which are _____.




4. What are homologous chromosomes?





5. What are sister chromatids?





6. What is crossing over, and during which process, (mitosis or meiosis) does it occur?





7. Why is crossing over important?





8. During __________ of mitosis sister chromatids separate.





9. During _________ of meiosis homologous pairs of chromosomes separate, but during ____________ of meiosis sister chromatids separate.





10. In meiosis, typically four sperm cells are made, but meiosis only makes one large egg cell. Why?




Plant Diversity





1. Which of the following is found in gymnosperms, and which is found in angiosperms?

A. seeds
B. pollen
C. Vessel cells in xylem
D. tracheid cells in xylem



2. What is the function of the anther in the flower?



3. Which of the following is where one would find ovules?

A. in an anther
B. in the ovary
C. in the stigma
D. in the style



4. Ovules are

A. eggs
B. spores that will become pollen
C. spores that will become eggs
D. immature seeds
E. pollen grains



5. In double fertilization the first sperm fertilizes the egg and the second

A. dies
B. is only used if the first sperm cell dies
C. fertilizes another egg
D. fertilizes a haploid endosperm mother cell to make diploid endosperm
E. fertilizes a diploid ( n+n) endosperm mother cell to make triploid endosperm



6. What is the function of fruit?



7. Microspores become
A. the embryo sac
B. the mature male gametophyte
C. pollen grains
D. eggs
E. only B and C above



8. What is the oldest plant on Earth, and what is the most massive


9. How are confiers adapted to life in cold dry climates?



10. What is missing in moss that is present in ferns?
A. swimming sperm
B. seeds
C. pollen
D. vascular tissue
E. ovules



11. Why are flowering plants so much more diverse than the gymnosperms?



12. What do ferns and mosses share in common?
A. seeds
B. swimming sperm
C. pollen
D. vascular tissue
E. dominant sporophyte generation



13. During a plant's life cycle the _______ generation is diploid and makes spores
A. sporophyte
B. gametophyte
C. sori
D. sporangia
E. photosynthetic







Fungi  
1. A lichen is made of a ____ and a ____. What is the ecological role of lichens?
2. What role do fungi play typically in their habitat?
3. How are fungi different from plants?
4. How do fungi feed?
5. How do fungi spread out in their habitat?
6. The body of a fungus is a thread like structure called a ____
6. A mass of the answer in question 6 is call a ____