Wednesday, December 12, 2012

Bio 120 Final Exam Review

Animal Review Mollusks to Mammals are on the Exam:
 1. What characteristics do all Mollusks share?
2. Clams have sturdy shells, but the octopus does not have a shell at all, and the squid has a very reduced shell. Why is the loss or reduction of the shell adaptive for the octopus and squid?
3. What do spiders, butterflies, crabs, and centipedes all have in common, and to what phylum do they belong?
4. What are the advantages and disadvantages of an exoskeleton?
5. True or false: Echinoderms and Chordates undergo early development in a similar way.
6. How are hagfish different from sharks?
7. How are sharks different from bony fish like trout or salmon?
8. Why are amphibians still tied to water?
9. How are reptiles better suited to land than amphibians?
10. What group of mammals lays eggs?
11. How are birds adapted for flight?

 Population Ecology and Interactions
1. Define resource partitioning and give an example of it.
2. How is logistic growth different from exponential growth? 3. How is a parasite different from a predator?
4. How are density dependent limiting factors different from density independent limiting factors? Give examples of each.
5. Coevolution happens between parasites and their hosts. Why is this not surprising?
6. Define and give examples of the following: Mutualism, Commensalism, social parasite.
7. What are common strategies predators use to capture prey, and common defenses found in prey?
8. Draw a food web that could occur in your backyard or here at Cerritos. Include all the trophic levels we discussed in class.
9. Why are there fewer members of the upper trophic levels as compared with primary consumers or the producers?
10. What is carrying capacity?

Genetics 1. Which of Mendel's laws addresses homologous chromosomes separating from each other during meiosis?
2. What word (or phrase) describes each of the following genotypes? TT Tt tt
3. What is the difference between genotype and phenotype?
4. Two normal parents have a child with a recessive disorder. What are the genotypes of each parent?
5. Dad has AB blood, and mom has O blood. What are the possible blood types of their children?
6. In pea plants purple flower color (P) is dominant to white (p). If a plant heterozygous for purple flowers is crossed with a plant with white flowers, what proportion of the offspring will have white flowers?
7. Colorblindness is an X linked recessive trait. Susan carries the gene for colorblindness, and her husband is not colorblind. What is the chance they will have a colorblind son? What is the chance they will have a daughter who is colorblind?
8. In one species of flowering plants there is some diversity in flower color. Some plants have blue flowers, some have red, and others have purple flowers. What type of inheritance do you suspect controls this trait, and why?
9. Huntington's Disease is caused by a dominant allele (H). Mark's mother is heterozygous for the allele, but his father has no evidence of the disease in his family. What is the chance that Mark has the allele for Huntington's Disease?
10. The disease sickle cell anemia is caused by a recessive allele. Two parents who are heterozygous for the allele have a child. What is the chance this child has the disease?
11. What does Mendel's law of independent assortment describe?
12. In a species of plant, there are individuals with red flowers and individuals with blue flowers. When plants with blue flowers are crossed with other blue flowering plants, only plants with blue flowers are produced. When Blue is crossed with red, sometimes only red flowering plants are produced, and other times both blue and red flowering plants are produced. When red plants are crossed with red, sometimes only red flowering plants are produced, and other times both blue and red flowering plants are produced. What color is dominant?