Wednesday, July 30, 2014

Exam 2 review Summer Bio 120 Evolution to cell respiration

1. How do biologists define evolution?

2. What is a population?

3. What islands were important to Charles Darwin's thinking on evolution?

4. How does the existence of fossils support the theory of evolution?

5. What is adaptive radiation, and give an example of adaptive radiation.

6. What is sympatric speciation, and how is it different from allopatric speciation?

7. What mechanisms of evolution are random?

8. Other than the fossil record, what evidence exists to support the theory of evolution?

 Chapter 4 Review:

1. Which colors of light are most strongly absorbed by chlorophyll?

2. Where does the oxygen released during photosynthesis come from?

3. Why is water needed in photosynthesis?

4. What are the products of the light dependent reactions?

5. What is made in the light independent reactions?

6. What is the role of RUBP in photosynthesis?

7. What kind of plants use PEP and what advantage does it give them?

8. How are CAM plants different from others in the way they do photosynthesis?

Here's some questions to make those brain cells churn out the ATP!

1. What are the differences between aerobic and anaerobic respiration, and which is more efficient?

2. What are NAD+ and FAD used for?

3. What are the three steps in aerobic respiration, and where does each occur?

4. During which step of cellular respiration is the most ATP made?

5. During aerobic respiration, how many ATPs are made from one molecule of glucose in most cells?

6. What is the role of oxygen in aerobic respiration?

7. Describe how the ATP is made during chemiosmosis

8. What is produced by your muscle cells if there is not enough oxygen available at the end of glycolysis for aerobic respiration to continue?

9. Yeasts do a kind of anaerobic respiration called ____________, and produce ___________ and _________ along with 2 ATP

1. Which of the following is found in gymnosperms, and which is found in angiosperms?

A. seeds
B. pollen
C. Vessel cells in xylem
D. tracheid cells in xylem

2. What is the function of the anther in the flower?

3. Which of the following is where one would find ovules?

A. in an anther
B. in the ovary
C. in the stigma
D. in the style

4. Ovules are

A. eggs
B. spores that will become pollen
C. spores that will become eggs
D. immature seeds
E. pollen grains

5. In double fertilization the first sperm fertilizes the egg and the second

A. dies
B. is only used if the first sperm cell dies
C. fertilizes another egg
D. fertilizes a haploid endosperm mother cell to make diploid endosperm
E. fertilizes a diploid ( n+n) endosperm mother cell to make triploid endosperm

6. What is the function of fruit?

7. Microspores become
A. the embryo sac
B. the mature male gametophyte
C. pollen grains
D. eggs E. only B and C above

8. What is the oldest plant on Earth, and what is the most massive
9. How are confiers adapted to life in cold dry climates?

10. What is missing in moss that is present in ferns?
A. swimming sperm
B. seeds
C. pollen
D. vascular tissue
E. ovules

11. Why are flowering plants so much more diverse than the gymnosperms?

12. What do ferns and mosses share in common?
A. seeds
B. swimming sperm
C. pollen
D. vascular tissue
E. dominant sporophyte generation

13. During a plant's life cycle the _______ generation is diploid and makes spores
A. sporophyte
B. gametophyte
C. sori
D. sporangia
E. photosynthetic

Fungi  Questions
1. A lichen is made of a ____ and a ____. What is the ecological role of lichens?
2. What role do fungi play typically in their habitat?
3. How are fungi different from plants?
4. How do fungi feed?
5. How do fungi spread out in their habitat?
6. The body of a fungus is a thread like structure called a ____
6. A mass of the answer in question 6 is call a ____

Monday, July 14, 2014

Cells, Mitosis, Chemistry and Scientific Method Review for Exam 1

Biology 120 Here are some review questions for you. Some may be similar to the daily review questions, but all will help you while you prepare for the exam.

Chapters 1 and 2
1.How is a hypothesis different from a theory?
2.What are five characteristics of living things?
3. What is a hydrogen bond, and why are these bonds important to life?
4. Oxygen has 8 electrons, with 6 in the outermost energy level. Will this atom react?
5. How are ions formed?
6. A solution with a pH of 5 is how many times more acidic than a solution with a pH of 7?
7. What determines if an atom with react with another?
8. How are polar and non polar covalent bonds different?
9. How is the polar nature of water related to:
a. its high boiling point
b. surface tension
c. the solid form being less dense than the liquid form

Organic Molecules
1. What are the building blocks of carbohydrates?
2. What is the difference between a saturated and unsaturated fatty acid?
3. Why is the shape of an enzyme important to the function of the enzyme?
4. At what level of complexity do proteins usually become functional?
5. What makes up a nucleotide?
6. What bond forms between amino acids as they react to form proteins?
7. How is the function of carbohydrates different in plants and animals?
8. Which of the macromolecules we discussed stores energy in the most efficient way?
9. What is the most common steroid in the body?

Chapter 3
1. How are the mitochondria and chloroplasts similar?
2. Why do we think mitochondria and chloroplasts were once independent organisms?
3. Describe the plasma membrane. Include how a lipid membrane functions in a watery environment.
4. What role do the proteins in the plasma membrane play?
5. How are prokaryotic cells different from eukaryotics cells?
6.What can cyanobacteria do that the bacteria living in your mouth do not do?
7.How are archeae different from the bacteria living on your skin?
8.Describe briefly what organelles would be involved in making a protein and exporting it from the cell.
9.Give an example of two cell organelles working together to accomplish a task.
10.What organelle is found on the ER?
11.What is the function of lysosomes?
12.Where is the nucleolus, and what is its function?
13.What are the functions of the Golgi bodies?

Osmosis and Diffusion

1. A plant cell in a hypertonic solution will under go _____________
2. An animal cell in a hypotonic solution may undergo _____________
3. A cell must maintain an imbalance of sodium ions on either side of the membrane for it to function. What process would it most likely use of the ones we discussed in class?
4. How is active transport different from diffusion and osmosis?
5. How is dialysis different from osmosis?
6. What affect would a hypertonic solution have on a cell?
7. In a hypotonic solution water would move ________ a cell.
8. If a .9% salt solution is isotonic to a red blood cell, a 2% salt solution would be _____.

Mitosis Mitosis and Meiois Review

1. If a cell has 8 chromosomes and does mitosis, how many cells will be made, and how many chromosomes will each cell have?

2. Mitosis creates cells which are ________.

3. What are sister chromatids?

4. During __________ of mitosis sister chromatids separate.

5. What is the purpose of mitosis?

6. What happens during the S phase of the cell cycle?

7. What happens during the G phases of the cell cycle?