Friday, July 27, 2012

Biology 120 review for the lecture final

Population Ecology and Interactions
1. Define resource partitioning and give an example of it.
2. How is a parasite different from a parasitoid?
3. How is a parasite different from a predator?
4. How are density dependent limiting factors different from density independent limiting factors? Give examples of each.
5. Coevolution happens between parasites and their hosts. Why is this not surprising?
6. Define and give examples of the following: Mutualism, Commensalism, social parasite.
7. What are common strategies predators use to capture prey, and common defenses found in prey?
8. Draw a food web that could occur in your backyard or here at Cerritos. Include all the trophic levels we discussed in class.
9. Why are there fewer members of the upper trophic levels as compared with primary consumers or the producers?
10. What is carrying capacity?

Biome Review
1. What are two important factors in determining what type of Biome one will find in a given area?
2. What causes the seasons here in North America?
3. What are three strategies plants have developed to survive in the cold dry,and sometimes dark conditions of the Tundra?
4. What kind of adaptations have animals developed to survive in: A. The tundra B. The deserts

5. What is a rain shadow, and how does it account for different plant communities occurring at the same latitude, but on opposites sides of a mountain range?=
6. In what biomes does fire play an important role, and what is this role?
7. How are coniferous forests different from deciduous forests?

1. Which of Mendel's laws addresses homologous chromosomes separating from each other during meiosis?
2. What word (or phrase) describes each of the following genotypes? TT Tt tt
3. What is the difference between genotype and phenotype?
4. Two normal parents have a child with a recessive disorder. What are the genotypes of each parent?
5. Dad has AB blood, and mom has O blood. What are the possible blood types of their children?
6. In pea plants purple flower color (P) is dominant to white (p). If a plant heterozygous for purple flowers is crossed with a plant with white flowers, what proportion of the offspring will have white flowers?
7. Colorblindness is an X linked recessive trait. Susan carries the gene for colorblindness, and her husband is not colorblind. What is the chance they will have a colorblind son? What is the chance they will have a daughter who is colorblind?
8. In one species of flowering plants there is some diversity in flower color. Some plants have blue flowers, some have red, and others have purple flowers. What type of inheritance do you suspect controls this trait, and why?
9. Huntington's Disease is caused by a dominant allele (H). Mark's mother is heterozygous for the allele, but his father has no evidence of the disease in his family. What is the chance that Mark has the allele for Huntington's Disease?
10. The disease sickle cell anemia is caused by a recessive allele. Two parents who are heterozygous for the allele have a child. What is the chance this child has the disease?
11. What does Mendel's law of independent assortment describe?
12. In a species of plant, there are individuals with red flowers and individuals with blue flowers. When plants with blue flowers are crossed with other blue flowering plants, only plants with blue flowers are produced. When Blue is crossed with red, sometimes only red flowering plants are produced, and other times both blue and red flowering plants are produced. When red plants are crossed with red, sometimes only red flowering plants are produced, and other times both blue and red flowering plants are produced. What color is dominant?

Tuesday, July 17, 2012

Summer School Review Exam 2

Here are some questions about plants for your review:
Review Questions about Plants:

1. Compare and contrast the movement of water and food in plants. Include in your answer what kinds of tissues and processes are involved in both.

2. Xylem is functional when dead at maturity while phloem is functional only when alive. Why?

3. In phloem, what is the role of the companion cell?

4. Which of the following is found in gymnosperms, and which is found in angiosperms?
A. seeds
B. pollen
C. Vessel cells in xylem
D. tracheid cells in xylem

5. What is cohesion of water, and how is this different from adhesion?

6. What part of the root absorbs water?

7. What is the function of the anther in the flower?

8. Which of the following is where one would find ovules?
A. in an anther
B. in the ovary
C. in the stigma
D. in the style

9. Ovules are
A. eggs
B. spores that will become pollen
C. spores that will become eggs
D. immature seeds
E. pollen grains

10. In double fertilization the first sperm fertilizes the egg and the second
A. dies
B. is only used if the first sperm cell dies
C. fertilizes another egg
D. fertilizes a haploid endosperm mother cell to make diploid endosperm
E. fertilizes a diploid ( n+n) endosperm mother cell to make triploid endosperm

11. What is the function of fruit?

12. Microspores become
A. the embryo sac
B. the mature male gametophyte
C. pollen grains
D. all of the above
E. only B and C above

13. What is the female gametophyte in flowering plants?

Here are the photosynthesis questions for review:

1. Which colors of light are most strongly absorbed by chlorophyll?

2. Where does the oxygen released during photosynthesis come from?

3. Why is water needed in photosynthesis?

4. What are the products of the light dependent reactions?

5. What is made in the light independent reactions?

6. What is the role of RUBP in photosynthesis?

7. What kind of plants use PEP and what advantage does it give them?

8. How are CAM plants different from others in the way they do photosynthesis?

9. What kind of organisms can do photosynthesis?

10. Where inside the chloroplast do the light dependent reactions happen?

Here's some questions to make those brain cells churn out the ATP!

1. What are the differences between aerobic and anaerobic respiration, and which is more efficient?

2. What are NAD+ and FAD used for?

3. What are the three steps in aerobic respiration, and where does each occur?

4. During which step of cellular respiration is the most ATP made?

5. During aerobic respiration, how many ATPs are made from one molecule of glucose in most cells?

6. What is the role of oxygen in aerobic respiration?

7. Describe how the ATP is made during chemiosmosis

8. What is produced by your muscle cells if there is not enough oxygen available at the end of glycolysis for aerobic respiration to continue?

9. Yeasts do a kind of anaerobic respiration called ____________, and produce ___________ and _________ along with 2 ATP

10. What are the important end products of the Citric Acid Cycle, and what happens to each of these products?

Evolution Review
1. Evolution is a change in _____________ over time in a ____________.

2. What is a population?

3. What islands were important to Charles Darwin's thinking on evolution?

4. Biogeography is how living things are distributed around the world. How was Darwin surprised by the the biogeography he observed on his trip around the world?

5. While fossils support the theory of evolution, we can't rely on the fossil record ever being complete. Why?

6. How does the existence of fossils support the theory of evolution?

7. How did LaMarck explain inheritance?

8. What was the hypothesis of catastrophism?

9. While the theory of evolution does not indicate humans came from chimps, it does indicate a _________________________ between chimps and humans.

10. Upon what observations did Darwin base his theory of evolution by natural selection?

11. How can speciation happen?

12. What mechanisms drive evolution?

13. Evolution happens to ______________, while natural selection acts on ____________.

Tuesday, July 3, 2012

Summer Bio 120 Review Questions for Exam 1

Here are some review questions for you. Some may be similar to the daily review questions, but all will help you while you prepare for the exam.

Chapters 1 and 2
1.How is a hypothesis different from a theory?
2.What are five characteristics of living things?
3. What is a hydrogen bond, and why are these bonds important to life?
4. Oxygen has 8 electrons, with 6 in the outermost energy level. Will this atom react?
5. How are ions formed?
6. A solution with a pH of 5 is how many times more acidic than a solution with a pH of 7?
7. What determines if an atom with react with another?
8. How are polar and non polar covalent bonds different?
9. How is the polar nature of water related to:
a. its high boiling point
b. surface tension
c. the solid form being less dense than the liquid form

Chapter 3
1. What are the building blocks of carbohydrates?
2. What is the difference between a saturated and unsaturated fatty acid?
3. Why is the shape of an enzyme important to the function of the enzyme?
4. At what level of complexity do proteins usually become functional?
5. What makes up a nucleotide?
6. What bond forms between amino acids as they react to form proteins?
7. How is the function of carbohydrates different in plants and animals?
8. Which of the macromolecules we discussed stores energy in the most efficient way?
9. What is the most common steroid in the body?

Chapter 4
1. How are the mitochondria and chloroplasts similar?
2. Why do we think mitochondria and chloroplasts were once independent organisms?
3. Describe the plasma membrane. Include how a lipid membrane functions in a watery environment.
4. What role do the proteins in the plasma membrane play?
5. How are prokaryotic cells different from eukaryotics cells?
6.What can cyanobacteria do that the bacteria living in your mouth do not do?
7.How are archeae different from the bacteria living on your skin?
8.Describe briefly what organelles would be involved in making a protein and exporting it from the cell.
9.Give an example of two cell organelles working together to accomplish a task.
10.What organelle is found on the ER?
11.What is the function of lysosomes?
12.Where is the nucleolus, and what is its function?
13.What are the functions of the Golgi bodies?

Chapter 5

1. A plant cell in a hypertonic solution will under go _____________
2. An animal cell in a hypotonic solution may undergo _____________
3. A cell must maintain an imbalance of sodium ions on either side of the membrane for it to function. What process would it most likely use of the ones we discussed in class?
4. How is active transport different from diffusion and osmosis?
5. How is dialysis different from osmosis?
6. What affect would a hypertonic solution have on a cell?
7. In a hypotonic solution water would move ________ a cell.
8. If a .9% salt solution is isotonic to a red blood cell, a 2% salt solution would be _____.

DNA Review Questions

1. Describe the structure of the DNA molecule

2. If the sequence of bases on one stand of the molecule is AAC TGC CCG, what is the sequence on the complementary strand?

3. During DNA replication, what enzyme breaks the hydrogen bonds between the base pairs, and what enzyme matches up nucleotides to the existing ones on the parent strand of DNA?

4. Why is this type of replication called Semi Conservative?

5. How is RNA different from DNA?

6. The production of messenger RNA from DNA is called ________, and this happens in the __________ of the cell.

7. The parts of the mRNA molecules which are edited out before RNA reaches the cytoplasm are called __________

8. mRNA gets a cap and a tail prior to being read by the ribosome. What is the function of the cap and tail?

9. If the DNA strand being copied had this sequence: ACT GGC ATA CTA what would the sequence of the mRNA be?

10. The function of transfer RNA is ?

11. What is the name of the enzyme that produces RNA from DNA?

12. If the sequence of DNA is the same in your body cells, why are all cells not the same?

13. The DNA in you, an earthworm, and a fungus is the same. So why are you a human and not an earthworm?

14. What is an anti-codon and where is it found?

15. The protein synthesis process that occurs at the ribosome is called _____________

16. What is a stop codon, and what happens when one is read in the ribosome?

Mitosis and Meiosis Review

1. If a cell has 8 chromosomes and does mitosis, how many cells will be made, and how many chromosomes will each cell have?

2. If a cell has 8 chromosomes and does meiosis to make sperm cells, how many cells will be made, and how many chromosomes will each cell have?

3. Mitosis creates cells which are ________, while meiosis makes cells which are _____.

4. What are homologous chromosomes?

5. What are sister chromatids?

6. What is crossing over, and during which process, (mitosis or meiosis) does it occur?

7. Why is crossing over important?

8. During __________ of mitosis sister chromatids separate.

9. During _________ of meiosis homologous pairs of chromosomes separate, but during ____________ of meiosis sister chromatids separate.

10. In meiosis, typically four sperm cells are made, but meiosis only makes one large egg cell. Why?

Genetic Engineering (Chapter 16)

1. What are restriction enzymes?
2. What kind of cells have restriction enzymes, and what is the purpose of these enzymes in the cell?
3. What is a plasmid?
4. How are plasmids used in genetic engineering?
5. Why does human DNA work in a bacterial cell?
6. What is gene therapy?
7. How are small fragments of DNA separated during the DNA fingerprinting process?
8. What benefits are there to inserting a human gene into a bacterium? What possible problems could arise from genetically engineered organisms being released into the wild?