Tuesday, October 7, 2014

DNA Review

DNA and Genetic Engineering Review Questions

1. Describe the structure of the DNA molecule

2. If the sequence of bases on one stand of the molecule is AAC TGC CCG, what is the sequence on the complementary strand?

3. During DNA replication, what enzyme breaks the hydrogen bonds between the base pairs, and what enzyme matches up nucleotides to the existing ones on the parent strand of DNA?

4. Why is this type of replication called Semi Conservative?

5. How is RNA different from DNA?

6. The production of messenger RNA from DNA is called ________, and this happens in the __________ of the cell.

7. mRNA gets a cap and a tail prior to being read by the ribosome. What is the function of the cap and tail?

8. If the DNA strand being copied had this sequence: ACT GGC ATA CTA what would the sequence of the mRNA be?

9. The function of transfer RNA is ?

10. What is the name of the enzyme that produces RNA from DNA?

11. If the sequence of DNA is the same in your body cells, why are all cells not the same?

12. The DNA in you, an earthworm, and a fungus is the same. So why are you a human and not an earthworm?

13. What is an anti-codon and where is it found?

14. The protein synthesis process that occurs at the ribosome is called _____________

15. What is a stop codon, and what happens when one is read in the ribosome?

Genetic Engineering  

1. What are restriction enzymes?

2. What kind of cells have restriction enzymes, and what is the purpose of these enzymes in the cell?

3. What is a plasmid?

4. How are plasmids used in genetic engineering?

5. Why does human DNA work in a bacterial cell?

6. What is gene therapy?

7. How are small fragments of DNA separated during the DNA fingerprinting process?

8. What benefits are there to inserting a human gene into a bacterium? What possible problems could arise from genetically engineered organisms being released into the wild?

Mitosis and Meiosis Review

Mitosis and Meiois Review

1. If a cell has 8 chromosomes and does mitosis, how many cells will be made, and how many chromosomes will each cell have?

2. If a cell has 8 chromosomes and does meiosis to make sperm cells, how many cells will be made, and how many chromosomes will each cell have?

3. Mitosis creates cells which are ________, while meiosis makes cells which are _____.

4. What are homologous chromosomes?

5. What are sister chromatids?

6. What is crossing over, and during which process, (mitosis or meiosis) does it occur?

7. Why is crossing over important?

8. During __________ of mitosis sister chromatids separate.

9. During _________ of meiosis homologous pairs of chromosomes separate, but during ____________ of meiosis sister chromatids separate.

10. In meiosis, typically four sperm cells are made, but meiosis only makes one large egg cell. Why?

Seed plants and Fungi Review

1. Which of the following is found in gymnosperms, and which is found in angiosperms?

A. seeds
B. pollen
C. Vessel cells in xylem
D. tracheid cells in xylem

2. What is the function of the anther in the flower?

3. Which of the following is where one would find ovules?

A. in an anther
B. in the ovary
C. in the stigma
D. in the style

4. Ovules are

A. eggs
B. spores that will become pollen
C. spores that will become eggs
D. immature seeds
E. pollen grains

5. In double fertilization the first sperm fertilizes the egg and the second

A. dies
B. is only used if the first sperm cell dies
C. fertilizes another egg
D. fertilizes a haploid endosperm mother cell to make diploid endosperm
E. fertilizes a diploid ( n+n) endosperm mother cell to make triploid endosperm

6. What is the function of fruit?

7. Microspores become
A. the embryo sac
B. the mature male gametophyte
C. pollen grains
D. eggs
E. only B and C above

8. What is the oldest plant on Earth, and what is the most massive

9. How are confiers adapted to life in cold dry climates?

10. What is missing in moss that is present in ferns?
A. swimming sperm
B. seeds
C. pollen
D. vascular tissue
E. ovules

11. Why are flowering plants so much more diverse than the gymnosperms?

12. What do ferns and mosses share in common?
A. seeds
B. swimming sperm
C. pollen
D. vascular tissue
E. dominant sporophyte generation

13. During a plant's life cycle the _______ generation is diploid and makes spores
A. sporophyte
B. gametophyte
C. sori
D. sporangia
E. photosynthetic

Fungi  Questions
1. A lichen is made of a ____ and a ____. What is the ecological role of lichens?
2. What role do fungi play typically in their habitat?
3. How are fungi different from plants?
4. How do fungi feed?
5. How do fungi spread out in their habitat?
6. The body of a fungus is a thread like structure called a ____
6. A mass of the answer in question 6 is call a ____