Thursday, April 2, 2015

Botany Review for Exam 3 Plant Physiology, Evolution, Prokaryotes, Fungi, Algae

 Plant Physiology

1. Which vascular tissue move water and which moves food in the plant body and how are these tissues different?
2. What forces are involved in the movement of water?
3. What is the role of the endodermis in the movement of water into the vascular cylinder?
4. What is the driving force of water movement into the leaves of a plant?
5. Food in plants moves from a ___________ to a ____________ .
6. Which process, water movement or translocation of food requires ATP?
7. What kind of cells in the phloem participates in the actual movement of the dissolved sugars?
8. Describe how dissolved sugar moves through the phloem.

1. How do biologists define evolution?
2. What is a population?
3. What islands were important to Charles Darwin's thinking on evolution?
4. What are vestigial structures?
5. While fossils support the theory of evolution, we can't rely on the fossil record ever being complete. Why?
6. How does the existence of fossils support the theory of evolution?
7. How did LaMarck explain inheritance?
8. What was the hypothesis of catastrophism?
9. While the theory of evolution does not indicate humans came from chimps, it does indicate a _________________________ between chimps and humans.
10. Upon what observations did Darwin base his theory of evolution by natural selection?
11. What is adaptive radiation, and give an example of adaptive radiation in plants.
12. How has evidence from molecular biology supported the theory of evolution?
13. What is sympatric speciation, and how is it different from allopatric speciation?

1. What is the name of the bacteria that do photosynthesis,and what can they do in addition to photosynthesis?
2. In what major way are bacterial cells different from plant cells?
3. Describe how bacterial cells can reproduce.
4. What is in the cell walls of bacteria?
5. What is a capsule used for?
6. What are the three basic shapes of bacteria?
7. What roles do bacteria play in the ecosystem where they are found?
8. How are Archea different from bacteria?
9. Some bacteria live in the roots of plants. What are they doing there?
10. What is a plasmid?

Fungi Questions
1. How are fungi classified?
2. What role do fungi play typically in their habitat?
3. How are fungi different from plants?
4. How do fungi feed?
5. What does heterokaryotic mean?
6. How do fungi spread out in their habitat?
7. The body of a fungus is a thread like structure called a ____
8. A mass of the answer in question 7 is call a ____
9. A lichen is made of a ____ and a ____. What is the ecological role of lichens?

Algae and other Protists

1. Why are algae different colors?
2. Which type of algae is most related to land plants?
3. How are diatoms different from other algae?
4. What are dinoflagelates and why are they important?
5. What are two economic use of algae?
6. What role do most algae play in their ecosystems?
7. How are the large brown algae we call kelp or seaweed adapted to life in the ocean?
8. Why is Euglena not considered a plant?
9.  How are cellular and plasmodial slime molds different?
10. What plant diseases can be caused by water molds?
11. Give an example of a colonial algae. What does it mean to be colonial?

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