Mitosis and Meiosis Review
1. If a cell has 8 chromosomes and does mitosis, how many cells will be made, and how many chromosomes will each cell have?
2. If a cell has 8 chromosomes and does meiosis to make sperm cells, how many cells will be made, and how many chromosomes will each cell have?
3. Mitosis creates cells which are ________, while meiosis makes cells which are _____.
4. What are homologous chromosomes?
5. What are sister chromatids?
6. What is crossing over, and during which process, (mitosis or meiosis) does it occur?
7. Why is crossing over important?
8. During __________ of mitosis sister chromatids separate.
9. During _________ of meiosis homologous pairs of chromosomes separate, but during ____________ of meiosis sister chromatids separate.
10. In meiosis, typically four sperm cells are made, but meiosis only makes one large egg cell. Why?
DNA Review Questions
1. Describe the structure of the DNA molecule
2. If the sequence of bases on one stand of the molecule is AAC TGC CCG, what is the sequence on the complemetary strand?
3. During DNA replication, what enzyme breaks the hydrogen bonds between the base pairs, and what enzyme matches up nucleotides to the existing ones on the parent strand of DNA?
4. Why is this type of replication called Semi Conservative?
5. How is RNA different from DNA?
6. The production of messenger RNA from DNA is called ________, and this happens in the __________ of the cell.
7. The parts of the mRNA molecules which are edited out before RNA reaches the cytoplasm are called __________
8. mRNA gets a cap and a tail prior to being read by the ribosome. What is the function of the cap and tail?
9. If the DNA strand being copied had this sequence: ACT GGC ATA CTA what would the sequence of the mRNA be?
10. The function of transfer RNA is ?
11. What is the name of the enzyme that produces RNA from DNA?
12. If the sequence of DNA is the same in your body cells, why are all cells not the same?
13. The DNA in you, an earthworm, and a fungus is the same. So why are you a human and not an earthworm?
14. What is an anti-codon and where is it found?
15. The protein synthesis process that occurs at the ribosome is called _____________
16. What is a stop codon?
1. Pick one of the ground tissues we discussed such as parenchyma or sclerenchyma, and explain how its structure and function are related.
2. What are the two types of vascular tissue in plants, and what is the function of each?
3. How is the anatomy of a monocot root, or stem or leaf different from that of a dicot?
4. What is the role of the epidermis? In woody plants the epidermis is replaced by the _______ ?
5.What are the regions called in plants where mitosis occurs to make the plant taller?
6. What is the name of the openings in the epidermis and what is the function of these openings?
7. In a dicot leaf, why is the lower layer of mesophyll more open than the upper layer?
8. What part of the root actually absorbs the water?
9. What is the difference between spring and summer wood?
10. How are compound and simple leaves different?
11. What is the function of the following stem modifications: tuber, bulb, corm, rhizome, stolon, tendril
12. What are five modifications of stems or leaves that might be found in a plant adapted to hot dry conditions?
13. Why are some plant's leaves modified to trap insects?
14. What is the role of the endodermis in the root?
15. What is the function of the pericycle?