Thursday, March 22, 2012

Botany Review Questions for Exam 3

1. How do biologists define evolution?
2. What is a population?
3. What islands were important to Charles Darwin's thinking on evolution?
4. Biogeography is how living things are distributed around the world. How was Darwin surprised by the the biogeography he observed on his trip around the world?
5. While fossils support the theory of evolution, we can't rely on the fossil record ever being complete. Why?
6. How does the existence of fossils support the theory of evolution?
7. How did LaMarck explain inheritance?
8. What was the hypothesis of catastrophism?
9. While the theory of evolution does not indicate humans came from chimps, it does indicate a _________________________ between chimps and humans.
10. Upon what observations did Darwin base his theory of evolution by natural selection?
11. What is adaptive radiation, and give an example of adaptive radiation in plants.
12. How has evidence from molecular biology supported the theory of evolution?
13. What is sympatric speciation, and how is it different from allopatric speciation?

14. How can adaptive radiation happen?

1. What is the name of the bacteria that do photosynthesis,and what can they do in addition to photosynthesis?
2. In what major way are bacterial cells different from plant cells?
3. Describe how bacterial cells can reproduce.
4. What is in the cell walls of bacteria?
5. What is a capsule used for?
6. What are the three basic shapes of bacteria?
7. What roles do bacteria play in the ecosystem where they are found?
8. How are Archea different from bacteria?
9. Some bacteria live in the roots of plants. What are they doing there?
10. What is a plasmid?

Fungi Questions
1. How are fungi classified?
2. What role do fungi play typically in their habitat?
3. How are fungi different from plants?
4. How do fungi feed?
5. What does heterokaryotic mean?
6. How do fungi spread out in their habitat?
7. The body of a fungus is a thread like structure called a ____
8. A mass of the answer in question 7 is call a ____
9. A lichen is made of a ____ and a ____. What is the ecological role of lichens?

Plant Physiology
1. Compare and contrast the movement of water and food in plants. Include in your answer what kinds of tissues and processes are involved in both.

2. Xylem is functional when dead at maturity while phloem is functional only when alive. Why?

3. In phloem, what is the role of the companion cell?

4. What is the difference between xylem in flowering plants and the xylem found in gymnosperms?

5. What is cohesion of water, and how is this different from adhesion?

6. What part of the root absorbs water?

7. What environmental cues can cause stomata to open and close?

8. What ions are involved in the opening and closing of the stomata?

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