Tuesday, February 24, 2015

Botany 120 Review for exam 2

Movement of  Water in the plant.
1. Describe the path a water molecule would take to enter the root, move into the xylem and up the stem of a plant and out a stoma in the leaf.
2. How is xylem different from phloem?
3. What forces are involved in the movement of water up a plant?
4. What determines if stomata are open or closed?

Plant Anatomy:
1. Pick one of the ground tissues we discussed such as parenchyma or sclerenchyma, and explain how its structure and function are related.
2. What are the two types of vascular tissue in plants, and what is the function of each?
3. How is the anatomy of a monocot root, or stem or leaf different from that of a dicot?
4. What is the role of the epidermis? In woody plants the epidermis is replaced by the _______ ?
5.What are the regions called in plants where mitosis occurs to make the plant taller?
6. What is the name of the openings in the epidermis and what is the function of these openings?
7. In a dicot leaf, why is the lower layer of mesophyll more open than the upper layer?
8. What part of the root actually absorbs the water?
9. What is the difference between spring and summer wood?
10. How are compound and simple leaves different?
11. What is the function of the following stem modifications: tuber, bulb, corm, rhizome, stolon, tendril
12. What are five modifications of stems or leaves that might be found in a plant adapted to hot dry conditions?
13. Why are some plant's leaves modified to trap insects?
14. What is the role of the endodermis in the root?
15. What is the function of the pericycle?

1. Describe the structure of the DNA molecule
2. If the sequence of bases on one stand of the molecule is AAC TGC CCG, what is the sequence on the complementary strand?
3. During DNA replication, what enzyme breaks the hydrogen bonds between the base pairs, and what enzyme matches up nucleotides to the existing ones on the parent strand of DNA?
4. Why is this type of replication called Semi Conservative?
5. How is RNA different from DNA?
6. The production of messenger RNA from DNA is called ________, and this happens in the __________ of the cell.
7. If the DNA strand being copied had this sequence: ACT GGC ATA CTA what would the sequence of the mRNA be?
8. The function of transfer RNA is ?
9. What is the name of the enzyme that produces RNA from DNA?
10. What is an anti-codon and where is it found?
11. The protein synthesis process that occurs at the ribosome is called _____________
12. What is a stop codon?

Mitosis and Meiosis
1. If a cell has 8 chromosomes and does mitosis, how many cells will be made, and how many chromosomes will each cell have?
2. Mitosis creates cells which are ________.
3. What are sister chromatids?
4. When mitosis is over, how does a plant cell divide up the cytoplasm?
5. Describe what happens in anaphase.
6. What are spindle fibers?
7. How can you tell a plant cell is in prophase?
8. During what part of the cell cycle is DNA replicated?
9. If a plant cell with a diploid number of 12 does meiosis the cells produced will have ___ chromosomes
10. What are homologous chromosomes?
11. What is crossing over and why is it important?
12. How is metaphase 1 in meiosis different from metaphase 1 in mitosis?

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